Subspecialities in ophthalmology

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eye doctor

Anterior segment surgery

It focuses on the anterior segment of the eye which includes the cornea, iris, ciliary body, and lens.

Cataracts and refractive surgery

As most of the general eye doctor called ophthalmologists to perform cataract surgery on a regular basis, this is not a sub-specialization in the sense that the others are. However, it is a distinct field of ophthalmology. Ophthalmologists with this sub-specialization commonly perform refractive surgery, which aims to correct refractive errors in the eye (surgery to remove eyeglass). Eye doctors who are specialized in refractive surgery are called Refractive Surgeon.

Cornea and External Disease

It is the speciality focused in Conjunctiva, Sclera, cornea and Eyelid disorders. The common problem such as Dry eye, conjunctivitis corneal ulcer, red eye due to Episcleritis and Scleritis is treated by these specialists.


The subspecialty of ophthalmology focus on treating glaucoma by lowering intraocular pressure and prevent from visual field defect due to optic nerve damage.

Glaucoma eye doctor


This Neuro-ophthalmology subspecialty is the combination of about nerve-related (neurological) and ophthalmic conditions, such as disease of the optic nerve which cause disrupts visual ability.

Ocular oncology

Ocular oncology is the subspecialty which deals with the treatment of eye cancer.

Oculoplastic and orbit surgery

It focuses on cosmetic surgery, reconstruction, Nasolacrimal passage surgery and orbital surgery.


Deals with treating eye disorder related to the children. It is focused on children’s eye care. This specialist is known as the pediatric ophthalmologist (Children’s eye doctor).

Uveitis and immunology

Deals with iris, ciliary body, and choroid related disease of the eye and immune state.

Vitreo Retina

Deals with disease related to vitreous and Retina. The eye doctor specialized in surgery of this subspecialty is known as Vitreo Retina Surgeon. Due to emerging Non-communicable disease in the world such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension, these subspecialty has greater scope in the developed country. Diabetes Retinopathy is also a leading cause for the burden of blindness in eye health.

Ophthalmic pathology

Deals with both ophthalmology and pathology.
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