Let’s Talk about Glaucoma Starting Today, Types of Glaucoma, Risk, Test, Treatment

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Dr prachand gautam glaucoma specialist of vision eye hospital examining patient

Let’s Talk about Glaucoma Starting Today!

Glaucoma is a kind of eye disease in which the nerve of the eye is completely damaged. The vision loss in glaucoma starts from the periphery to the centre finally makes a person blind. The main cause of Glaucoma is the pressure inside of the eye that should be between 10-21 mm of Hg. But some people have normal pressure inside the eyeball.

Healthy Eyes:

In healthy eyes, the fluid inside of the eye is drained out and produced in, at the same rate. When the fluid cannot drain at the constant rate or cannot drain at all, the pressure inside the eyeball rises up. At this initial phase, little signs or No signs are seen at all. Thus, Without any glaucoma symptoms, it can make people blind. The person with glaucoma does not feel anything at all.

Types of Glaucoma:

1. Glaucoma by birth (Congenital Glaucoma)
  • Increase in the size of the eyeball.
  • Watery eyes of the infant all the time.
  • The infant cannot look at the sources of light.
2.Glaucoma in Adults
  • In this condition, no symptoms are seen in the patient. One of the family members might have glaucoma.
3. Glaucoma even if the eye’s fluid drainage system is open is called Open Angle Glaucoma.
  • In this stage, there might be no signs, so the patient often visits the eye hospital after the vision is totally lost.
4. Glaucoma, when the eye’s fluid drainage system in clogged is called Closed Angle Glaucoma.
  • Severe pain in the eyeball with blurry vision. 
  • Seeing colour halos or rainbow lights around the lighted bulb.
  • A headache, Vomiting, and Vertigo.
One can have this symptom when they do near work or stay in darkness for a long time.
Glaucoma progression chart
Who are at the risk of Glaucoma?
  • If anyone in the family has Glaucoma(Gene/Heredity).
  • Those who are aged 40 and above.
  • Those with Diabetes.
  • Those have used steroids for a long period of time.
  • Those with eye injury.
  • Those who wear thick glasses(Spectacles)
How do we know if we have Glaucoma?
If you have any of the above-mentioned signs and symptoms, it is better to visit an Ophthalmologist and have your eyes checked:
  • The pressure inside the eye is measured by the Ophthalmologist.
  • Eye’s fluid Drainage system, Examination of the Optic Neve of the eye etc. falls under the check-up process by your Ophthalmologists.
Other tests if Glaucoma is suspected:
  • Visual Field Test where the sight of an eye is checked in the periphery of the eye.
  • O.C.T machine check-up for your retinal layers.
Treatment Methods of Glaucoma: (Can Glaucoma be cured?)

There is no permanent treatment method of Glaucoma but Reducing the pressure inside of the eye is considered as the control measure.
  1. Laser Technology: This technique is used when the fluid outflow(Drainage) system’s angle becomes smaller.
  2. Eye Drops: After Consulting your Ophthalmologist, proper use of eye drops for Glaucoma must be done. The main thing about this process is, Patient should not forget to use the eye drops at any time.
  3. Surgery: If the above-mentioned methods couldn’t control the pressure inside of the eyeball, Surgery is done to help control the pressure. But some people will be needing eyedrops even after the surgery.
Aware Yourself and others about the eye disease Glaucoma and prevent from going blind.
Dr Prachand gautam interview with local radio
Radio Program for Glaucoma Awareness by Dr Prachand Gautam
The article is written by Dr Prachanda Gautam. He is Former Glaucoma specialist of Lumbini Eye Institute, Rupandehi, Nepal. Currently, he is working at Vision Eye Hospital, Nepalgunj. The article was written in Nepali and Eye Health Nepal team translated it as many users requested us for the translation.
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