NHPC Syllabus For PCL in Ophthalmic Science Licensing Exam


Syllabus for Licensing Examination of PCL in Ophthalmic Science/Diploma in Ophthalmic Technique 2021

Total 100% Marks Exam Will be held on following contents. 


Basic of preparatory/general sciences (Physics biochemistry, zoology, Botany) 5%

This includes essential knowledge

  • Laws of reflection and refraction, Refractive index
  • Types of chemical bond.
  • Characteristics of acids, bases and salts.
  • Antacids and antabases and their medical uses
  • Structure (Linear Cyclic) of glucose,
  • Functions of Carbohydrates
  • Introduction of lipid, fat and oil and their natural sources.
  • Types of tissues
  • Muscular tissue and its types, striated, smooth and
  • Cardiac muscles of animals.
  • Nervous tissue and its types.
  • Morphology of fungal plant
  • Characteristics of a virus


General Anatomy and Physiology (Systems of the Body) 10%

This includes general concepts of anatomy and physiology of human body:

  • Anatomical terms,
  • Accessory organs and glands of the skin.
  • Structures and functions of the heart, Components and function of the blood.
  • Terms related to the skeletal system : axial ,appendicular ,articular cartilage ,diaphysis, epiphysis fontanel , hematopoiesis , periosteum
  • Classifications of joints,
  • Structure and Divisions of the central nervous system: Classifications of neurons and neuralgia
  • Self-healing nature of body cells and tissues.
  • Physiological terms: Cardiovascular, Digestion ,Excretion ,Organ ,Peritoneal, Pericardial ,Thoracic Visceral ,Homeostasis
  • Factors affecting growth and repair. Coagulation factors.
  • Cranial nerves and their function
  • Measurement of pulse and blood pressure


Ocular Anatomy and Physiology 10%

This includes general concepts of basic knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the
eye. This includes :

  • Embryology of the eye
  • Anatomy along with blood and nerve supply of eye lids and adnexa, conjunctiva, cornea, slcera, uveal tract, lens, vitreous humor, retina, angle structure
  • Physiology of the cornea, aqueous humour, metabolism of cornea, lens and vitreous
  • Anatomy of orbit and its walls
  • Anatomy of extraocular muscles
  • Anatomy and functions of cranial nerves related to eye
  • Anatomy of lacrimal drainage systems
  • Formation and drainage of aqueous humour
  • Anatomy and physiology of visual pathway
  • Anatomy of pupillary pathway and pupillary reflex

Ocular Pharmacology 10%

This includes concepts on pharmacology with special reference to eye. Selection of appropriate drugs for specific disease/conditions, their actions, indications, contraindications and side effects.

This includes

  • Pharmacological terminologies like half life, plasma concentration of drug, bioavailability, shelf life, expiry date
  • Concepts of pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics
  • Routes of administration of drugs
  • Mechanism of action, indication, contraindication, side effects precautions of:
  • Different types of antibiotics, their mechanism of action and spectrum of activity
  • Drugs used in gastrointestinal systems, respiratory system, cardiovascular system, Central Nervous System
  • Analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory drugs: Mechanism of action, indication, contraindication, side effects and precautions
  • Steroidal drugs
  • Nutritional Supplements
  • Antihistamines and allergic
  • Mydriatics and Cycloplegics
  • Miotics and Antiglaucoma drugs
  • Lubricating drugs


Ocular Pathology 10%

This includes different aspects of ocular pathology with special reference to eye.

  • Microbiology
  • Morphology, classification, structure of bacteria, virus, fungus, parasites
  • Epidemiology, mode of infection, pathogenicity, laboratory diagnosis of commonbacteria, virus, fungus, parasites
  • Culture media of bacteria, fungus
  • Different staining techniques, antibiotic susceptibility testing 5
  • General composition of blood, types of blood cells with their function
  • Total Leucocyte count, Differential Leucocyte count with their normal values
  • Different methods of sterilization and disinfection

Systemic Disease of the eye 5%

This includes ideas of disease in general medicine related to the eyes
This includes

  • Diabetes Mellitus and its effects on eye
  • Hypertension and its effects on eye
  • Thyroid Eye Disease and its effects on eye
  • Vitamin A deficiency and its effects on eye
  • Tuberculosis
  • Leprosy
  • Syphilis
  • Gonorrhea
  • Rubella
  • Toxoplasmosis

Binocular Single Vision and its abnormalities 5%

This includes identification and management of different binocular vision abnormalities.

This includes:

  • Understand the function of EOM
  • Different types of eye movement
  • Accommodation: Introduction, anomalies and assessment
  • Latent and Manifest misalignment of the eyes
  • Motor and Sensory adaptation to strabismus
  • Basic Tests in Orthoptics setting
  • Hirschberg and Krimsky test
  • Cover test and its types
  • Test of convergence and accommodative problems
  • Test for suppression
  • Test for stereopsis
  • Test for Prism Fusion range
  • Amblyopia and its management


Optics and Refraction 5%

This includes basic knowledge of optics and refraction, understanding of the light and its
clinical implications, different optical condition of the eye. This includes
Light, its nature and interaction with reflective and refractive medium

  • Cardinal points
  • Schematic Eye
  • Lens design options in minus and plus lens
  • Meniscus lens, Lenticular lens and Myodisc
  • Manufacturing of Ophthalmic lenses
  • Properties of Ophthalmic lens
  • Lens aberrations
  • Myopia and its classification based on etiology
  • Hyperopia and classification based on etiology
  • Astigmatism and types of astigmatism
  • Accommodation and its physiology
  • Presbyopia and its classification
  • Parts of retinoscope, optical priniciple, reflex characteristics and procedure
  • Techniques of subjective refraction and its importance
  • Specifying lens power, prescription writing and power verification


Investigative Ophthalmology 5%

This includes different investigation procedures for specific eye problems and
interpretation the findings of the investigations. This includes

  • Visual acuity (near and distance)
  • Colour vision and contrast sensitivity assessment
  • intraocular pressure
  • Visual field
  • Ultrasonography
  • FFA
  • Anterior segment and fundus photography
  • Exophthalmometry
  • Pachymetry
  • Keratometry
  • Gonioscopy
  • Direct Ophthalmoscopy
  • Indirect Ophthalmoscopy
  • Slit lamp bio microscopy
  • Biometry

Ophthalmic Nursing Care and Operation Theatre Management 10%

This includes basic ophthalmic nursing procedure required to perform during, after and
before surgery. This includes

  • Respiration: definition, types, characteristics, factors affecting temperature, pulse,
    respiration and blood pressure
  • Principles, Techniques and Measurement of temperature, pulse, respiration and
    blood pressure
  • Objective of Operation Theatre
  • Operation Theatre management and aseptic technique
  • Trolley preparation in different eye surgery
  • Scrub and circulation
  • OT Hazards and risk management
  • Definition, types of ocular anesthesia, equipment
  • Management of recovery patient
  • Pre and post operative management of different types of ocular surgery
  • Routes of administration of drugs

Ocular Surgery Assisting 10%

This includes knowledge and skills on ocular surgical procedures to assist the
ophthalmologist. Includes:

  • Instruments, step, consumable and medicines in
  • cataract surgery
  • glaucoma surgery
  • nasolacrimal passage surgery
  • Strabismus surgery
  • Keratoplasty surgery
  • Vitro-retinal surgery
  • Lid surgery
  • Orbitotomy surgery
  • Enucleation, evisceration and extentration surgery
  • Excisional biopsy
  • Electroepilation
  • Pterygium excision and conjunctival graft
  • Preparation of patient, surgical area, step of surgery, possible complication and
  • management of extra ocular surgeries
  • Trolley preparation, consumable and post operative management of
  • Entropion
  • Chalazion
  • lid laceration repair
  • incision and drainage of lid abscess and externum

Community Ophthalmology 10%

This includes planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluating the eye health and
interventions in defined population. Developing tools to assess the magnitude of eye
problem, calculating disease burden and making conversation with current national and 8
global eye health strategies and planning on eye health. This includes

  • Concept of health given by Alma-Ata declaration/WHO
  • Primary health care, its definition and elements
  • Measuring disease burden in community (Magnitude, prevalence, incidence)
  • Concepts, Importance, Components of community participation
  • Health/Eye health status indicators
  • Basic Health profile of Nepal
  • Prevalence of blindness and visual impairment in Nepal
  • Calculation of WHO standard of visual outcome
  • Sustainable Development Goals
  • WHO action Plan
  • WHO and IAPB eye health strategies at global and regional level

Code of Ethic 5%

Ophthalmic Assistant code of ethics : View Now

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